American Graphic Design Companies

Graphics - Wikipedia  August 29, 2013 – 00:01
22 Great Graphic Design Agencies | Vectortuts+

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The term graphic indicates the sector of "production art "oriented" design "and the creation of products for visual communication .

Group encompasses several specific areas, including at least two clearly marked: graphic design (graphic design), to which today we digest the term indicating the general category of graphics - and the art graphics, industry-oriented to the reproduction of works of art in limited quantity.

The art of graphic design was born in the West in the fifteenth century by the need to produce more copies of the same image, in a society where it is developing a new class merchant and bourgeois who possess economic resources and consequently develops cultural needs more or less numerous , is achieved through the processing of a matrix , engraved manually in order to be able to be used to carry the subject on a sheet through the use of a press . The processing techniques of matrices derived from the experience of engravers of metals and precious receive a major boost from the almost simultaneous invention of book printing with movable type in the mid- fifteenth century .

The first printed images are made ​​with the technique of woodcut , also called silografia, which presupposes the use of a matrix in wood , that the engraver works in relief, that is, removing the part that must not print, realizing in this way a support that has the design in relief .

At the beginning of the sixteenth century , the woodcut is accompanied by the intaglio printing technique that uses metal, mainly copper and zinc . In this case the engraver works in recess, that is, digging in the metal drawing to be printed. When the engraver works directly on the plate it comes to recording a graver if the instrument is used, the graver note, he removes the metal is not needed thanks to its tip triangular , or talking about drypoint , when the tool tip is limited to scratch and move the metal on the side of the grooves. Another technique of metal is that of etching , when the etching is carried out indirectly, by immersion of the plate in an acid , which was called aqua fortis, plate previously covered with a paint resistant to acid and drawn, removing the paint, in correspondence with the parties who have to suffer the biting acid. At the end of the eighteenth century, it turns out the possibility of using matrices in stone and created the technique of lithography , in which the matrices stone limestone , previously sanded and surface treated with the acids , are designed with special pencils fat. During printing the ' ink adheres only to the lithographic drawn parts, where you will find more ink and is otherwise rejected by the rest of the array because sprayed with water.

  • Mario Piazza: The graphics of the made ​​in Italy. Communication and design firms. 1950-1980; AIAP ( Milan ), 2010. ISBN 88-90-25846-2 ISBN 978-88-9025-846-6
  • Various Authors: The number one made ​​in Italy, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, Milan, 2005. ISBN 88-8490-796-9
  • Alberto Bramanti: The graphics industry Lombard, Franco Angeli, Milano, 2010.
  • Leopoldina Fortunati, Elda Danese: Manual of communication, sociology, Meltemi, Rome, 2005. ISBN 88-8353-442-5


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